Notes for Psychology of the Individual with exceptionalities 11/12-11/17
· Dispositions
o Being punctual for college and k-12 activities
o Fulfilling commitments in reliable manner
o respecting confidential information
o Accepting constructive feedback
o Displaying a positive and enthusiastic attitude
o Dresses professionally
o Demonstrating the belief that all students are valuable and can learn
o Demonstrating equitable interactions with all students
o Seeking opportunities to grow professionally
· Builders of Community
o How do educators build community
§ Classrooms
§ Schools
§ Greater community
· Previous/present Goals of Education
o Teach people to read bible and defeat Satan
o Create informed citizens in order to participate in the democratic process
o Create individuals to participate in economic system
o Social stratify individuals into social and economic classes
o Decrease the divorce rate
o Solve problems with obesity
o Transmits values of society
· Thomas Jefferson
o “All human beings irrespective of the accident of their birth are entitled to enjoy the aspirations of being fully complete and free human beings.”
· IDEA
o Individuals w/disability Education Act
§ “disability is a natural part of the human experience in No way diminishes the right of the individual to participate in or contribute to society
o Outcomes of the Law
§ Improving education results in children with disability is an essential element of our national policy of insuring
· Equality of opportunity
· Full participation
· Independent living
· Economic self sufficiency
o Proposed 5th outcome
§ Reciprocal relationships
· Everyone benefits from experiences assisting others
· Introduction to IDEA
o Originally PL 94-142 Education for all Handicapped Children Act
§ 1st enacted in 1975
§ Open schools to all students who had disabilities
§ Current focus:
· To provide a free appropriate public education to all students with disabilities
· Span of Special Education
o IDEA now serves from Birth-21
o 3 Sections
§ Intent of the Law
§ Serving Kids 3-21
§ Students ages birth-2
· Demographics
o 6 million 6-21
o 369,596 0-3
o 670,750 pre-school
o 2/3 boys
o 1/3 girls
o 1.8%-18% gifted and talented
§ More male than female
· Eligibility
o Need
o Special education Services are provided where the students are
§ Classroom
§ Home
§ Hospital
§ Institution
§ other
o Part B
§ There are 12 different categories under which students may be served
o Part C
§ Early intervention
§ Diagnosed condition
§ States have the option to serve at risk children
· Special Education
o Specially designed instruction for those students who need specially designed instruction
· 6 principles of IDEA
o Zero reject
o No discriminatory
o Appropriate education
o Procedural due process
o Parent participation



Notes for Psychology of the Individual w/Exceptionalities January 19, 2011
· What is discrimination
o The United Nations explains,” Discriminatory behaviors take many forms, but they all involve some sort of exclusion and rejections.” (united nations CyberSchool Bus: what is discrimination)
o We are concerned with disability Discrimination; which is discrimination against people with disabilities
§ What groups have been discriminated against in the history of American public Schools
· Grill Story
o African Americans
o If we make a policy that limits an action that only a certain groups of students participate in that’s discrimination
· Groups Previously Discriminated against
o Anyone who isn’t a rich white male
o Catholics
o Types of Discrimination
§ Exclusion-individuals are not allowed to participate in programs or services
· Happened before 1975
§ Misclassifications – individual are classified in a manner that is not consistent with their traits or abilities
· After 1975
o Story of not getting the right help because of the way you learn whether it be visual or auditory
o Lives could be changed forever
o History of Discrimination
§ Institutionalization
· (Europe and North America) began in the 17th century. This is the practice of putting the mentally ill, mentally disabled, or criminally minded, individuals into mental hospitals
§ Deinstitutionalization
· (mid-20th century) the process of replacing long stay hospitals with lesser isolated community based treatments. In the United States this occurred into two waves: 1050’s mentally ill; mid-1960’s-developmental disabilities
o Not only did society needed to changes so did people’s ideas
§ Normalization
· Process of making previously institutionalized individuals normalized within an environment
· Both public perspective and the individuals had to be normalized
o Schools
§ 1920’s –compulsory education
· Mandatory Public education
§ 1950’s
· Deinstitutionalization
§ 1954
· Brown v. Topeka Board of Education
o Separate but equal will never be equal
§ Minority have the same rights to go to school as majority
§ 1966
· ESEA includes programs for individuals with disabilities
§ 1972
· PARAC v. Pennsylvania and Mills v. Washington, DC
o Pennsylvania students with disabilities receive free education
§ 1975
· PL-94-142 EAHCA, IDEA (FAPE)
o Take Away
§ Discrimination
§ Institutionalization
§ Deinstitutionalization
§ Exclusion
§ Misclassification
§ Brown v. Topeka
§ ESEA
§ PARC and Mills
o Concepts
§ History of discrimination for those with disabilities
§ Discrimination in Schools